The early universe scenario in FRW and K-K models: A study


The early Universe has been a subject of research for many cosmologists and it is reviewed and analyzed rigorously in cosmology recently. Thermal history and theory of phase transition coordinate us to elucidate the evolution of the Universe at its early stages and is interesting to get a gist of early universe behavior. At phase transition, effective potential plays a significant role for the kinds of transition that occurred during the evolution.  The temperature, at which phase transition occurs, can be determined at minimum effective potential.  It is also known fact that temperature of the Universe has changed considerably with its evolution.  The present work investigates the time-temperature relation in four- dimensional and five-dimensional cosmological models.  A comparison of time- temperature relation in FRW model with that of Kaluza-Klein (K-K) model demonstrates that temperature decreases faster in Kaluza-Klein model. The investigation demonstrates the important role played by extra dimension in the study of time-temperature relation at the early Universe scenario.
How to Cite
JAIN, N. I.. The early universe scenario in FRW and K-K models: A study. International Journal of Mathematics and Physics, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 2, p. 4-11, jan. 2023. ISSN 2409-5508. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 09 feb. 2023. doi: